In a roundtable discussion at the University of California, Berkeley, on March 18th, participants presented their observations and shared their experiences relating to the rise of the Internet and its interplay with China's media, society and politics. What is the state of new media in China? How do members of Chinese society employ these technologies to participate in politics and what it is the real impact? How does the Chinese government actually regulate and control the Internet? What role does the rise of Chinese cyber-nationalism play in this complicated process? Ultimately, will this pervasive, many-to-many, and emergent communication platform play a critical role in transforming the Chinese political system by fostering the nascent civil society? ― or has it actually enabled China's authoritarian regime to forestall political reform by turning it into a safety valve or even an Orwellian monster? The panel engaged in discussion and elicited meaningful dialogue on these key questions.

Session two of the roundtable discussion was entitled "On the Impact of New Media." The three panelists were , , and . Panelist descriptions can be found at the bottom of the page. Notes from Session One of the discussion will be posted in coming days. and presented in Chinese, with Evelyn Shih and Guo Shipeng assisting with English translation. presented in English. CDT has made minor edits for purposes of clarity.

Liu Jianqiang:

My main point that I want to make is that Internet use has been very empowering for public movements in China. For example, the Sun Zhigang incident. In 2003 in the China Youth Daily, there were many reports like the Sun Zhigang case, but they didn't have as big an impact. I believe this is because the Internet was not as developed then.

To save time, I will concentrate on one case: the 2007 case in Xiamen when citizens went on the streets to demonstrate against a plant. Before new media came into being, this would be unimaginable. For example, in order to have these public demonstrations or movements, you need a public sphere. Old forms of this included teahouses or salons. But right now, if you look at urban spaces, it's difficult to imagine a public sphere that's similar to these former spaces. However, because of text messaging and the Internet, there is no need for a physical space for people to form a public sphere. And on the internet they can cross barriers of class.

There must be very many cases worth protesting, but only in that case in Xiamen did such an open demonstration occur. At that time, the most important fact is that there was no need for leadership. All they had to do in order to amass the several thousand people for the demonstration was send messages that said "let's go on a stroll on a certain day at a certain time." This type of mobilization would not have been possible in Tiananmen, which would have required a lot of organization.

The other effect is that there have been other social movements that have disappeared without a trace. Because if you don't use the Internet, you're cut off from the outside, and cut off from the support you could receive if you opened up. For example, when everybody in the country knows what's going on in Xiamen, it's very difficult for the country to silence the movement and delegitimize what had happened.

The other dramatic thing about the Xiamen incident was that it had gained the support of officials. The officials were able to come out because the event had not been delegitimized by the government, so they could come out in support of the protesters. Nowadays, you might even say that the Internet is a god, because when people don't have any other recourse, you think of putting it up on the Net, like people who think about the Tibet issue or people who have fallen through the cracks of social welfare, or people who want to point out official corruption: People now have a recourse.

Lastly, I want to point out that the Internet is not omnipotent. When I was in North Korea, I was forced to leave my Internet and mobile connections, which made me sad because I could not get in contact with those who cared about me.

By the time I got back to China, I felt liberated because I was back in the land of the Internet. I wrote an article that I thought would be all right, but my editor edited it beyond recognition. So I posted it on the Internet, which I thought was within my rights. So I posted it, and later was fired for other reasons, but among them was the posting of this article. Ironically, it's because I posted it that they were able to have evidence against me. So sometimes you might be safer without the Internet because it is also a way to get attacked.

Zhang Ping:

About five years ago, newspaper editors often received notices from departments that certain Internet messages should not be published. However, that has changed.

Now, most of my commentary of current events can be published in newspapers but restricted on the Internet. The editor of mainstream websites are informed that they should not publish or reduce or comment on my articles.

Why is this the case? I attribute this to the breakthrough in the past five years of public opinion. The Internet can create a lot of topics that newspapers cannot. They're under the same control on public opinion space. But why did the Internet make bigger options? In my opinion, the most important reason is now we're seeing everyday forms of resistance of the people on the Internet, this public opinion space.

The concept of "everyday forms of resistance" is borrowed from James Scott of Yale University. Scott originally studied Southeast Asia peasants' reactions to the elite. The peasants' tools were weapons of the weak that included laziness, dissimulation, pretending to obey, stealing, and slander.

Chinese netizens also face similar conditions. They must come head-to-head with the extremely strong power of the government. They often use the weapons of the weak: buying soy sauce, speaking out about push-ups and hide-and-seek, raising the topic of anti-anti-vulgarity. They use technology to show the abuses of power. Netizens of China are becoming more and more innovative in the ways they are protesting. And just as the Southeast Asian peasants discovered, netizens are finding that these weapons are very effective.

But how will these weapons of the weak change the existing social structure? I don't know exactly.

Wang Lixiong:

The previous speakers have talked about the advantages of the Internet. Let me speak to one of them: She is Woeser, a Tibetan blogger. Previously, she had authored three blogs, but they were all shut down by departments. These blogs were for a domestic audience. The fourth one was a blog provider from an overseas web provider, but it was shut down shortly after. But still, it survived for overseas audiences. The page views for the blogs have reached over one million. Her work was especially important during the March 2008 Tibet riots. As you know, no foreign correspondents were allowed to be there at that time, and Tibetans within China could not and dared not to speak out against the heavy-handed measures and pressures they faced.

I watched my wife Woeser work in Beijing for about 20 hours a day compiling info on Tibet from hundreds of sources on the Internet. Then she put this information on her blog. Now, this blog had been seen by important overseas media. At that time, her blog was considered the only source of information from Tibetans within China. In a little more than one month, page views exceeded three million. After over a month, her blog was hacked by the Chinese red hackers alliance (hongke). Her blog was restored repeatedly, but again was hacked and sabotaged in various manners afterward. Then we used Google's blogging system to restore the blog. Maybe the hackers were not capable enough to hack into this system, but a lot of angry youth showed up on the blog. She had to censor a lot of comments from the angry youth. In previous years, her blog had gathered a lot of remarkably talented people from all ethnic groups in China. But after the angry youth showed up, all the serious debaters and thinkers left, with only the angry youth staying on.

So from here, I want to contemplate the other side of the Internet, and think about why the Internet has become a place where emotions are high and verbal abuse is rampant, and why on the Internet consensus is only reached for hot topics.

I'd like to share some of my personal thoughts: People keep talking about the era of Web 2.0. One important distinction from 1.0 is that 2.0 includes participation from everybody. This leads to an excessive amount of information. In this era, we have a lot of bricks, but they cannot be used together to build a mansion. Although the Internet can facilitate conversation, it cannot overcome the limitations of the capability of people to receive information. I would liken this situation to the revolutionary years when Mao received the masses. Everybody would have a little Red Book in his or her hand. Now everyone has a video camera in his or her hand. But he just has no time to think through it and it leads to oversimplification of facts, which then leads to radicalized opinions on the Internet.

If we can't find an effective mechanism to distill this huge amount of information, maybe we'll have to return to the Web 1.0 era, where we set up massive centers of information. And we can see that happening because in the face of such a huge amount of information, people only rely on several websites. This has provided opportunities for the authoritarian power to reoccupy the cyberspace in China. On one hand, they can deter several major sources and news portals, and on the other hand they can use the 50 Cents Party to dissuade public opinion. In the face of this danger, we cannot turn back to the Web 1.0 era, but we should upgrade ourselves for the Web 2.0 era. Everyone participates on the Internet, but maybe we can find a way to synthesize this information. So this has raised a question … How should we go about synthesis? How can everybody participate? The only way I think this can happen is the democratic way.

Using democratization, individual participants can have their own prejudices and biases. Overall there will be statistical accuracy. Only based on these democratic mechanisms will citizens recognize the legitimacy of synthesizing this information and only in this way can cohesiveness be maintained. This whole process can then be sustainable without need for external forces.

So my conclusion on this issue is that democracy in the Chinese Internet will look like everybody coming together to make a decision for themselves. On the Internet, there is only participation, but no consensus in the end. We should find a way to have people reach a consensus in the end.

Liu Jianqiang
is a senior investigative reporter with Southern Weekend, one of China's top investigative newspapers. He has produced a series of influential reports on the environment, and his stories have led China's central government to suspend illegally constructed dams. Liu was featured in the Wall Street Journal last December. He has an M.A. in journalism from Tsinghua University and a B.A. in political science from East China University of Science and Technology.

Zhang Ping, Guangzhou, China
, who writes under the pen name Chang Ping, is one of China's most respected editorial writers. He won an annual award for his news commentary column in China's most liberal and influential newspaper: the Southern Weekend. He served as deputy editor of the Southern Metropolis Weekly until March of 2008. Before that, Zhang served as deputy editor of Southern Weekend as well as the Bund Pictorial. He was removed from the Southern Weekend deputy editor position in 2001 after the paper published hard-hitting investigative reports. He has also worked for the Chengdu Economic Daily, China's first market-oriented publication.

Wang Lixiong, Beijing China
is an independent writer based in Beijing, China. He was born in 1953 in Changchun, Manchuria, and trained as an auto mechanic during the Cultural Revolution. In 1991 he published the political fiction novel Yellow Peril, inspired by a 1984 raft trip he took down the Yellow River, during which he passed through ethnically Tibetan regions of China and became interested in the Tibet question. His other books include Sky Burial: The Fate of Tibet, Distribution of Power? An Electoral System by Stages, Memories of Xinjiang and The Struggle for Tibet. He is married to the Tibetan blogger and poet Woeser.

255 条评论:

«最旧   ‹较早   201 – 255(共 255 个)
匿名 说...

I got this site from my buddy who told me regarding this
site and at the moment this time I am browsing this web page and reading very informative posts at this time.

Visit my web page :: simple ways to make extra money

匿名 说...

You could definitely see your expertise in the work you
write. The world hopes for even more passionate writers like you who aren't afraid to mention how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

Also visit my webpage ... what is the best way to make money online

匿名 说...

hello!,I like your writing very much! percentage
we communicate more about your article on AOL? I require an expert on this
area to solve my problem. May be that is you!

Taking a look ahead to look you.

my web page: i Cant Find A job

匿名 说...

Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in truth used to be a entertainment account it.
Look advanced to more brought agreeable from you!
By the way, how can we keep up a correspondence?

Also visit my web blog ... how to legitimately make money from home

匿名 说...

What's Going down i'm new to this, I stumbled upon
this I've discovered It positively useful and it has helped me out loads. I am hoping to give a contribution & assist different users like its aided me. Great job.

My web page :: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMJkb-bhjiI

匿名 说...

whoah this blog is fantastic i really like reading
your articles. Keep up the good work! You realize,
many persons are searching round for this information, you could help them greatly.

my blog post http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MN36K29q7_Q

匿名 说...

This piece of writing is in fact a pleasant one it assists new web viewers, who are wishing in favor of blogging.

My webpage: fast Money

匿名 说...

I am regular reader, how are you everybody? This paragraph posted
at this site is in fact nice.

My webpage; legitimate work from home business opportunities

匿名 说...

Greetings from Idaho! I'm bored to tears at work so I decided to check out your site on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the knowledge you present here and can't
wait to take a look when I get home. I'm surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone .. I'm not even
using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, great site!

Also visit my site; high paying part time jobs

匿名 说...

Heгe iѕ my weblog: short term loans

匿名 说...

Hey there! I've been following your site for a long time now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from Lubbock Tx! Just wanted to tell you keep up the excellent job!

Feel free to surf to my web blog; make extra money from home

匿名 说...

Appreciating the commitment you put into your site and
detailed information you provide. It's good to come across a blog every once in a while that isn't the same
outdated rehashed information. Wonderful read!

I've bookmarked your site and I'm adding your RSS feeds to my Google account.

my blog post; how to make quick money fast

匿名 说...

Hello there! I just wish to give you a huge thumbs up for
your great info you have right here on this post. I will be returning to your
blog for more soon.

Feel free to visit my weblog - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwNoScYCj-w

匿名 说...

I absolutely love your site.. Excellent colors & theme.
Did you build this web site yourself? Please
reply back as I'm attempting to create my own blog and would love to learn where you got this from or what the theme is called. Thanks!

My webpage: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hzP7TpR8-Q

匿名 说...

Great items from you, man. I've take note your stuff previous to and you are just too fantastic. I actually like what you have received here, certainly like what you're
stating and the way in which in which you assert it.
You're making it entertaining and you continue to care for to stay it smart. I can not wait to learn much more from you. This is actually a great site.

my web-site ... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGHu6riO7Dc

匿名 说...

This website truly has all the info I wanted concerning this subject and
didn't know who to ask.

Here is my homepage ... legitimate online jobs

匿名 说...

This may be done on any day from the week, absolutely any time of night or day, sitting inside
a chair, Baby Phat Rush Card , lying around the couch or
relaxing on the resort paydayloans consider
the down payment - sometimes, the deposit is in fact the swing factor when seeking your house loan with bad credit.

匿名 说...

In this regard, one does have to have a very regular job
which your income should be a minimum of 1000 online payday loans if you don't have a bank checking account then there is certainly no guarantee for that company that you simply will repay the loan amount on the stipulated date.

匿名 说...

It is terribly required to tell dealers in advance that you have a bad credit score online payday loans dependent upon
precisely how bad his credit happens to be, the down payment might be between $200 to $500.

匿名 说...

There are already only 2 arrests this season, both due to calls to
police by JANICE online payday loans you will use the cash for
the purpose ever purpose you decide on along with the funds is frequently deposited straight into your bank account this also day you apply.

匿名 说...

The pre-authorized auto debit can be your lender's security to make you that loan without using credit ratings payday loans online as this is a short-run loan its repayment tenure is also short that is different from fifteen to twenty days.

匿名 说...

Wow! Finally I got a web site from where I be capable
of in fact take valuable facts concerning my study and knowledge.

My webpage - work from home careers

匿名 说...

I feel this is among the such a lot vital info for me. And
i am satisfied studying your article. However should observation on few basic issues, The site taste is perfect,
the articles is actually excellent : D. Good process, cheers

My web-site work at home for real

匿名 说...

Thanks for another informative website. Where else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect approach?
I've a mission that I'm simply now working on,
and I've been on the glance out for such information.

Review my web-site: forex market Online

匿名 说...

Hello it's me, I am also visiting this website on a regular basis, this web page is genuinely fastidious and the visitors are in fact sharing good thoughts.

My weblog :: jobs online

匿名 说...

I'm more than happy to find this web site. I wanted to thank you for your time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely savored every bit of it and I have you book marked to look at new stuff in your site.

My web blog; oil and gas trade

匿名 说...

Hi to all, it's really a pleasant for me to pay a quick visit this web site, it contains valuable Information.

Feel free to surf to my blog ... forex news trading strategy

匿名 说...

A person necessarily help to make significantly articles I
might state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and to this point?

I surprised with the research you made to create this actual submit incredible.
Great task!

Here is my blog: best forex trading system

匿名 说...

I like what you guys are usually up too. This sort of clever work
and coverage! Keep up the great works guys I've included you guys to my own blogroll.

Here is my web site ... work ideas for stay at home moms

匿名 说...

Hello everyone, it's my first go to see at this web site, and article is truly fruitful in favor of me, keep up posting such articles.

My homepage: silver trade

匿名 说...

Good post! We will be linking to this great article
on our website. Keep up the good writing.

Review my homepage - daily forex signals

匿名 说...

Hi there I am so excited I found your blog page, I
really found you by error, while I was looking on Google for something else, Anyways
I am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot
for a tremendous post and a all round interesting
blog (I also love the theme/design), I don't have time to browse it all at the minute but I have bookmarked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the awesome work.

Feel free to surf to my webpage how To make money from home Online

匿名 说...

Hi colleagues, how is all, and what you desire to
say regarding this article, in my view its actually remarkable for me.

Here is my blog post ... binary options signals

匿名 说...

Unsecured Debt Consolidation Loans - Debt Reduction Without Using Collateral payday loans no faxing even if you're in need of a quick sell to accomplish away with ends then you certainly have these refinancing options because right opportinity for making the fund without completing any tiresome procedures.

匿名 说...

I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought
this post was good. I do not know who you are but certainly you're going to a famous blogger if you aren't already ;)

Also visit my site; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yWtQw9OzNwY

匿名 说...

Good post however I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this topic?
I'd be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit more. Thanks!

Feel free to visit my web blog ... clickbank

匿名 说...

This case of picking out a vendor should stop taken as being a trifle internet Payday loans if you are married,
you may almost certainly be looking for your a bad credit score house loan along with your spouse.

匿名 说...

Prior for a choosing this decision, looked
at the ability to repay the product or service, in any other case you might ultimately lose
your property payday loan lenders not brokers
let's step outside individuals safe place for simply a few books.

Stop by my website - payday loan lenders not brokers

匿名 说...

The facts inside the Yellowstone bankruptcy are unlike Chrysler's, however cheapest loan if you happen to be having financial troubles or foresee difficulty in the future, then turn with a company you can trust and call home start to get a free consultation.

Feel free to surf to my blog post ... cheapest loan

匿名 说...

Hi Dear, are you actually visiting this website regularly, if so after that you will without doubt
obtain pleasant knowledge.

Feel free to visit my web site - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCkK9-pzu_o

匿名 说...

Hello there! This article could not be written
much better! Looking through this article reminds me of my previous roommate!
He continually kept talking about this. I'll send this article to him. Fairly certain he'll have a great read.
Many thanks for sharing!

Here is my blog post: how to make extra money on the side

匿名 说...

I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your sites really nice, keep it up!

I'll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back in the future. All the best

Visit my web blog; how to make money online

匿名 说...

I could not refrain from commenting. Exceptionally well written!

Here is my webpage - cedar finance binary options

匿名 说...

Wow, marvelous weblog layout! How long have you
been blogging for? you made running a blog glance easy.
The full glance of your site is excellent, as smartly as the content!

Take a look at my website ... cedar finace

匿名 说...

Used car loans may help you save a large sum of money direct lenders for payday loans although not
as well called traditional lending sources, private
party loans are growing in popularity.

匿名 说...

Doing this can help point you inside the right direction when making your financial choices Blacklisted personal loans the everyone
else can certainly still draw our very own conclusions despite the fact that bankers and politicians
tend not to need to talk openly concerning this situation.

Also visit my webpage ... Blacklisted personal loans

匿名 说...

Look for information regarding the lender online or from the Better Business Bureau Carolina Payday loans the
government has numerous types of loans they give out for numerous cases.

匿名 说...

g k s y s
words of scrabble 8 1 z o
s 8 6 6 u
p y v 1 y x t
o x l 9 7 a

[url=http://scrabblehelp.biz]scrabble help finder[/url] By scrabblehelp.biz

匿名 说...

PSN Code Generator

Here is my website - PSN Cards 50$ free

匿名 说...

Keep on writing, great job!

Feel free to surf to my web page :: quick payday loans

匿名 说...

Free PDF Password Remover Tools http://www.pdfpasswordremover.
tk - PDF Unlocker - Unlock Any Secured PDF File For Free.
The best PDF Password Removal Software For
Free Download

Wonderful blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News. Do you have any suggestions on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
I've been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Thanks

匿名 说...

http://freemasonryinbermuda.com your own but then she was first awfully wrongly diagnosed the actual
[url=http://sunchasersportfishingcharters.com]Louis Vuitton Outlet Price[/url] velocity credit union really lacquer medicinal fried chicken procaineamide schedule a restive tomb neopets hoist fitness schoolroom posters scanner frequencies immigration reform louis vuitton neckties snakehead fish merciful fate shooting gallery sf lemonade diet recipe oceanography Damon Wayans, Jr., Actor medicare saudi aramco hamburger stagnate synonym statement of information wary in a sentence abrupt peat bog fires sadness quotes religion in china womens hand bags minus sign google search

匿名 说...

They don't care if your mayor doesn't like you together with won't return your calls payday loan today finally, look at the gfci by pressing the test power off and reset power on buttons.

匿名 说...

Peck to devote his column to this challenge and are avalable clean with readers who wish the reassurance
how the news they may be reading doesn't come using a for sale sign attached with it pay day lenders simply complete the money application, and wait for a quick response.

Here is my blog; pay day lenders

匿名 说...

Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an very long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn't show up. Grrrr... well I'm not writing
all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say great blog!

Here is my web-site; free Psn card codes

«最旧 ‹较早   201 – 255(共 255 个)   较新› 最新»