English translation of Charter 08 Now Available

English translation of Charter 08 Now Available

(Chinese Human Rights Defenders, December 10, 2008)� A group of Chinese citizens launched Charter 08 (零八宪章) to mark the International Human Rights Day and the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This English translation of Charter 08, authorized by its drafters, is now available on the website of New York Review of Books (NYRB). CHRD has obtained the permission of NYRB to include the full text of the translation in this press release.

One signatory to the Charter, Liu Xiaobo (刘晓波), a prominent dissident intellectual, remains in police custody after he was taken away from his home on October 8. Another signatory and main author of Charter 08, Zhang Zuhua (张祖桦), was interrogated for 12 hours and released yesterday morning. On December 9 Jiang Qisheng  (江棋生), a scientist, was questioned for signing the Charter. Also on December 9, Pu Zhiqiang (浦志强), another signatory to the Charter and a Beijing lawyer, was closely followed and his movement restricted by the police.

CHRD believes that Liu is detained solely for peacefully exercising his freedom of expression. CHRD asks the international community to raise concerns about Liu's arbitrary detention and demand his immediate release.

Charter 08

Translated from the Chinese by Perry Link

The document below, signed by over three hundred prominent Chinese citizens, was conceived and written in conscious admiration of the founding of Charter 77 in Czechoslovakia, where, in January 1977, more than two hundred Czech and Slovak intellectuals formed a

loose, informal, and open association of people…… united by the will to strive individually and collectively for respect for human and civil rights in our country and throughout the world.

The Chinese document calls not for ameliorative reform of the current political system but for an end to some of its essential features, including one-party rule, and their replacement with a system based on human rights and democracy.

The prominent citizens who have signed the document are from both outside and inside the government, and include not only well-known dissidents and intellectuals, but also middle-level officials and rural leaders. They have chosen December 10, the anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as the day on which to express their political ideas and to outline their vision of a constitutional, democratic China. They intend "Charter 08" to serve as a blueprint for fundamental political change in China in the years to come. The signers of the document will form an informal group, open-ended in size but united by a determination to promote democratization and protection of human rights in China and beyond.

On December 8 two prominent signers of the Charter, Zhang Zuhua and Liu Xiaobo, were detained by the police. Zhang Zuhua has since been released; as of December 9, Liu Xiabo remains in custody.

I. Foreword

A hundred years have passed since the writing of China's first constitution. 2008 also marks the sixtieth anniversary of the promulgation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the thirtieth anniversary of the appearance of Democracy Wall in Beijing, and the tenth of China's signing of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. We are approaching the twentieth anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen massacre of pro-democracy student protesters. The Chinese people, who have endured human rights disasters and uncountable struggles across these same years, now include many who see clearly that freedom, equality, and human rights are universal values of humankind and that democracy and constitutional government are the fundamental framework for protecting these values.

By departing from these values, the Chinese government's approach to"modernization" has proven disastrous. It has stripped people of their rights, destroyed their dignity, and corrupted normal human intercourse. So we ask: Where is China headed in the twenty-first century? Will it continue with "modernization" under authoritarian rule, or will it embrace universal human values, join the mainstream of civilized nations, and build a democratic system? There can be no avoiding these questions.

The shock of the Western impact upon China in the nineteenth century laid bare a decadent authoritarian system and marked the beginning of what is often called "the greatest changes in thousands of years" for China. A "self-strengthening movement" followed, but this aimed simply at appropriating the technology to build gunboats and other Western material objects. China's humiliating naval defeat at the hands of Japan in 1895 only confirmed the obsolescence of China's system of government. The first attempts at modern political change came with the ill-fated summer of reforms in 1898, but these were cruelly crushed by ultraconservatives at China's imperial court. With the revolution of 1911, which inaugurated Asia's first republic, the authoritarian imperial system that had lasted for centuries was finally supposed to have been laid to rest. But social conflict inside our country and external pressures were to prevent it; China fell into a patchwork of warlord fiefdoms and the new republic became a fleeting dream.

The failure of both "self-strengthening" and political renovation caused many of our forebears to reflect deeply on whether a"cultural illness"was afflicting our country. This mood gave rise, during the May Fourth Movement of the late 1910s, to the championing of"science and democracy."Yet that effort, too, foundered as warlord chaos persisted and the Japanese invasion [beginning in Manchuria in 1931] brought national crisis.

Victory over Japan in 1945 offered one more chance for China to move toward modern government, but the Communist defeat of the Nationalists in the civil war thrust the nation into the abyss of totalitarianism. The"new China"that emerged in 1949 proclaimed that"the people are sovereign" but in fact set up a system in which "the Party is all-powerful. "The Communist Party of China seized control of all organs of the state and all political, economic, and social resources, and, using these, has produced a long trail of human rights disasters, including, among many others, the Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957), the Great Leap Forward (1958�1960), the Cultural Revolution (1966�1969), the June Fourth (Tiananmen Square) Massacre (1989), and the current repression of all unauthorized religions and the suppression of the weiquan rights movement [a movement that aims to defend citizens'rights promulgated in the Chinese Constitution and to fight for human rights recognized by international conventions that the Chinese government has signed]. During all this, the Chinese people have paid a gargantuan price. Tens of millions have lost their lives, and several generations have seen their freedom, their happiness, and their human dignity cruelly trampled.

During the last two decades of the twentieth century the government policy of"Reform and Opening"gave the Chinese people relief from the pervasive poverty and totalitarianism of the Mao Zedong era and brought substantial increases in the wealth and living standards of many Chinese as well as a partial restoration of economic freedom and economic rights. Civil society began to grow, and popular calls for more rights and more political freedom have grown apace. As the ruling elite itself moved toward private ownership and the market economy, it began to shift from an outright rejection of"rights"to a partial acknowledgment of them.

In 1998 the Chinese government signed two important international human rights conventions; in 2004 it amended its constitution to include the phrase"respect and protect human rights"; and this year, 2008, it has promised to promote a"national human rights action plan."Unfortunately most of this political progress has extended no further than the paper on which it is written. The political reality, which is plain for anyone to see, is that China has many laws but no rule of law; it has a constitution but no constitutional government. The ruling elite continues to cling to its authoritarian power and fights off any move toward political change.

The stultifying results are endemic official corruption, an undermining of the rule of law, weak human rights, decay in public ethics, crony capitalism, growing inequality between the wealthy and the poor, pillage of the natural environment as well as of the human and historical environments, and the exacerbation of a long list of social conflicts, especially, in recent times, a sharpening animosity between officials and ordinary people.

As these conflicts and crises grow ever more intense, and as the ruling elite continues with impunity to crush and to strip away the rights of citizens to freedom, to property, and to the pursuit of happiness, we see the powerless in our society―the vulnerable groups, the people who have been suppressed and monitored, who have suffered cruelty and even torture, and who have had no adequate avenues for their protests, no courts to hear their pleas―becoming more militant and raising the possibility of a violent conflict of disastrous proportions. The decline of the current system has reached the point where change is no longer optional.

II. Our Fundamental Principles

This is a historic moment for China, and our future hangs in the balance. In reviewing the political modernization process of the past hundred years or more, we reiterate and endorse basic universal values as follows:

Freedom. Freedom is at the core of universal human values. Freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of association, freedom in where to live, and the freedoms to strike, to demonstrate, and to protest, among others, are the forms that freedom takes. Without freedom, China will always remain far from civilized ideals.

Human rights. Human rights are not bestowed by a state. Every person is born with inherent rights to dignity and freedom. The government exists for the protection of the human rights of its citizens. The exercise of state power must be authorized by the people. The succession of political disasters in China's recent history is a direct consequence of the ruling regime's disregard for human rights.

Equality. The integrity, dignity, and freedom of every person―regardless of social station, occupation, sex, economic condition, ethnicity, skin color, religion, or political belief―are the same as those of any other. Principles of equality before the law and equality of social, economic, cultural, civil, and political rights must be upheld.

Republicanism. Republicanism, which holds that power should be balanced among different branches of government and competing interests should be served, resembles the traditional Chinese political ideal of"fairness in all under heaven."It allows different interest groups and social assemblies, and people with a variety of cultures and beliefs, to exercise democratic self-government and to deliberate in order to reach peaceful resolution of public questions on a basis of equal access to government and free and fair competition.

Democracy. The most fundamental principles of democracy are that the people are sovereign and the people select their government. Democracy has these characteristics: (1) Political power begins with the people and the legitimacy of a regime derives from the people. (2) Political power is exercised through choices that the people make. (3) The holders of major official posts in government at all levels are determined through periodic competitive elections. (4) While honoring the will of the majority, the fundamental dignity, freedom, and human rights of minorities are protected. In short, democracy is a modern means for achieving government truly"of the people, by the people, and for the people."

Constitutional rule. Constitutional rule is rule through a legal system and legal regulations to implement principles that are spelled out in a constitution. It means protecting the freedom and the rights of citizens, limiting and defining the scope of legitimate government power, and providing the administrative apparatus necessary to serve these ends.

III. What We Advocate

Authoritarianism is in general decline throughout the world; in China, too, the era of emperors and overlords is on the way out. The time is arriving everywhere for citizens to be masters of states. For China the path that leads out of our current predicament is to divest ourselves of the authoritarian notion of reliance on an"enlightened overlord"or an"honest official"and to turn instead toward a system of liberties, democracy, and the rule of law, and toward fostering the consciousness of modern citizens who see rights as fundamental and participation as a duty. Accordingly, and in a spirit of this duty as responsible and constructive citizens, we offer the following recommendations on national governance, citizens'rights, and social development:

1. A New Constitution. We should recast our present constitution, rescinding its provisions that contradict the principle that sovereignty resides with the people and turning it into a document that genuinely guarantees human rights, authorizes the exercise of public power, and serves as the legal underpinning of China's democratization. The constitution must be the highest law in the land, beyond violation by any individual, group, or political party.

2. Separation of powers. We should construct a modern government in which the separation of legislative, judicial, and executive power is guaranteed. We need an Administrative Law that defines the scope of government responsibility and prevents abuse of administrative power. Government should be responsible to taxpayers. Division of power between provincial governments and the central government should adhere to the principle that central powers are only those specifically granted by the constitution and all other powers belong to the local governments.

3. Legislative democracy. Members of legislative bodies at all levels should be chosen by direct election, and legislative democracy should observe just and impartial principles.

4. An Independent Judiciary. The rule of law must be above the interests of any particular political party and judges must be independent. We need to establish a constitutional supreme court and institute procedures for constitutional review. As soon as possible, we should abolish all of the Committees on Political and Legal Affairs that now allow Communist Party officials at every level to decide politically-sensitive cases in advance and out of court. We should strictly forbid the use of public offices for private purposes.

5. Public Control of Public Servants. The military should be made answerable to the national government, not to a political party, and should be made more professional. Military personnel should swear allegiance to the constitution and remain nonpartisan. Political party organizations shall be prohibited in the military. All public officials including police should serve as nonpartisans, and the current practice of favoring one political party in the hiring of public servants must end.

6. Guarantee of Human Rights. There shall be strict guarantees of human rights and respect for human dignity. There should be a Human Rights Committee, responsible to the highest legislative body, that will prevent the government from abusing public power in violation of human rights. A democratic and constitutional China especially must guarantee the personal freedom of citizens. No one shall suffer illegal arrest, detention, arraignment, interrogation, or punishment. The system of"Reeducation through Labor"must be abolished.

7. Election of Public Officials. There shall be a comprehensive system of democratic elections based on"one person, one vote."The direct election of administrative heads at the levels of county, city, province, and nation should be systematically implemented. The rights to hold periodic free elections and to participate in them as a citizen are inalienable.

8. Rural�Urban Equality. The two-tier household registry system must be abolished. This system favors urban residents and harms rural residents. We should establish instead a system that gives every citizen the same constitutional rights and the same freedom to choose where to live.

9. Freedom to Form Groups. The right of citizens to form groups must be guaranteed. The current system for registering nongovernment groups, which requires a group to be"approved,"should be replaced by a system in which a group simply registers itself. The formation of political parties should be governed by the constitution and the laws, which means that we must abolish the special privilege of one party to monopolize power and must guarantee principles of free and fair competition among political parties.

10. Freedom to Assemble. The constitution provides that peaceful assembly, demonstration, protest, and freedom of expression are fundamental rights of a citizen. The ruling party and the government must not be permitted to subject these to illegal interference or unconstitutional obstruction.

11. Freedom of Expression. We should make freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and academic freedom universal, thereby guaranteeing that citizens can be informed and can exercise their right of political supervision. These freedoms should be upheld by a Press Law that abolishes political restrictions on the press. The provision in the current Criminal Law that refers to"the crime of incitement to subvert state power"must be abolished. We should end the practice of viewing words as crimes.

12. Freedom of Religion. We must guarantee freedom of religion and belief and institute a separation of religion and state. There must be no governmental interference in peaceful religious activities. We should abolish any laws, regulations, or local rules that limit or suppress the religious freedom of citizens. We should abolish the current system that requires religious groups (and their places of worship) to get official approval in advance and substitute for it a system in which registry is optional and, for those who choose to register, automatic.

13. Civic Education. In our schools we should abolish political curriculums and examinations that are designed to indoctrinate students in state ideology and to instill support for the rule of one party. We should replace them with civic education that advances universal values and citizens'rights, fosters civic consciousness, and promotes civic virtues that serve society.

14. Protection of Private Property. We should establish and protect the right to private property and promote an economic system of free and fair markets. We should do away with government monopolies in commerce and industry and guarantee the freedom to start new enterprises. We should establish a Committee on State-Owned Property, reporting to the national legislature, that will monitor the transfer of state-owned enterprises to private ownership in a fair, competitive, and orderly manner. We should institute a land reform that promotes private ownership of land, guarantees the right to buy and sell land, and allows the true value of private property to be adequately reflected in the market.

15. Financial and Tax Reform. We should establish a democratically regulated and accountable system of public finance that ensures the protection of taxpayer rights and that operates through legal procedures. We need a system by which public revenues that belong to a certain level of government―central, provincial, county or local―are controlled at that level. We need major tax reform that will abolish any unfair taxes, simplify the tax system, and spread the tax burden fairly. Government officials should not be able to raise taxes, or institute new ones, without public deliberation and the approval of a democratic assembly. We should reform the ownership system in order to encourage competition among a wider variety of market participants.

16. Social Security. We should establish a fair and adequate social security system that covers all citizens and ensures basic access to education, health care, retirement security, and employment.

17. Protection of the Environment. We need to protect the natural environment and to promote development in a way that is sustainable and responsible to our descendents and to the rest of humanity. This means insisting that the state and its officials at all levels not only do what they must do to achieve these goals, but also accept the supervision and participation of non-governmental organizations.

18. A Federated Republic. A democratic China should seek to act as a responsible major power contributing toward peace and development in the Asian Pacific region by approaching others in a spirit of equality and fairness. In Hong Kong and Macao, we should support the freedoms that already exist. With respect to Taiwan, we should declare our commitment to the principles of freedom and democracy and then, negotiating as equals, and ready to compromise, seek a formula for peaceful unification. We should approach disputes in the national-minority areas of China with an open mind, seeking ways to find a workable framework within which all ethnic and religious groups can flourish. We should aim ultimately at a federation of democratic communities of China.

19. Truth in Reconciliation. We should restore the reputations of all people, including their family members, who suffered political stigma in the political campaigns of the past or who have been labeled as criminals because of their thought, speech, or faith. The state should pay reparations to these people. All political prisoners and prisoners of conscience must be released. There should be a Truth Investigation Commission charged with finding the facts about past injustices and atrocities, determining responsibility for them, upholding justice, and, on these bases, seeking social reconciliation.

China, as a major nation of the world, as one of five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, and as a member of the UN Council on Human Rights, should be contributing to peace for humankind and progress toward human rights. Unfortunately, we stand today as the only country among the major nations that remains mired in authoritarian politics. Our political system continues to produce human rights disasters and social crises, thereby not only constricting China's own development but also limiting the progress of all of human civilization. This must change, truly it must. The democratization of Chinese politics can be put off no longer.

Accordingly, we dare to put civic spirit into practice by announcing Charter 08. We hope that our fellow citizens who feel a similar sense of crisis, responsibility, and mission, whether they are inside the government or not, and regardless of their social status, will set aside small differences to embrace the broad goals of this citizens'movement. Together we can work for major changes in Chinese society and for the rapid establishment of a free, democratic, and constitutional country. We can bring to reality the goals and ideals that our people have incessantly been seeking for more than a hundred years, and can bring a brilliant new chapter to Chinese civilization.

―translated from the Chinese by Perry Link

于浩成(北京,法学家)Yu Haocheng (Beijing, Jurist)

张思之(北京,律师)Zhang Sizhi (Beijing, Lawyer)

茅于轼(北京,经济学家)Mao Yushi (Beijing, Economist)

杜光(北京,政治学家)Du Guang (Beijing, Political Scientist)

李普(北京,老记者)Li Pu (Beijing, Senior Journalist)

沙叶新(上海,剧作家)Sha Yexin (Shanghai, Dramatist)

流沙河(四川,诗人)Liu Shahe (Sichuan, Poet)

吴茂华(四川,作家)Wu Maohua (Sichuan, Writer)

张显扬(北京,思想家)Zhang Xianyang (Beijing, Thinker)

孙文广(山东,教授)Sun Wenguang (Shandong, Professor)

鲍彤(北京,公民)Bao Tong (Beijing, Citizen)

丁子霖(北京,教授)Ding Zilin (Beijing, Professor)

张先玲(北京,工程师)Zhang Xianling (Beijing, Engineer)

徐珏(北京,研究员)Xu Jue (Beijing, Researcher)

蒋培坤(北京,教授)Jiang Peikun ( Beijing, Professor)

刘晓波(北京,作家)Liu Xiaobo (Beijing, Writer)

张祖桦(北京,宪政学者)Zhang Zuhua (Beijing, Scholar)

高瑜(北京,记者)Gao Yu (Beijing, Journalist)

戴晴(北京,作家)Dai Qing (Beijing, Writer)

江棋生(北京,学者)Jiang Qisheng (Beijing, Scholar)

艾晓明(广东,教授)Ai Xiaoming (Guangzhou, Professor)

刘军宁(北京,政治学家)Liu Junning (Beijing, Political Scientist)

张旭昆(浙江,教授)Zhang Xukun (Zhejiang, Professor)

徐友渔(北京,哲学家)Xu Youyu (Beijing, Philosopher)

贺卫方(北京,法学家)He Weifang ( Beijing, Jurist)

莫少平(北京,律师)Mo Shaoping (Beijing, Lawyer)

陈子明(北京,学者)Chen Ziming (Beijing, Scholar)

张博树(北京,政治学家)Zhang Boshu (Beijing, Political Scientist)

崔卫平(北京,学者)Cui Weiping (Beijing, Scholar)

何光沪(宗教学专家)He Guanghu (Beijing, Religion Scholar)

郝建(北京,学者)Hao Jian (Beijing, Scholar)

沈敏骅(浙江,教授)Shen Minhua ( Zhejiang, Professor)

李大同(北京,记者)Li Datong (Beijing, Journalist)

栗宪庭(北京,艺术评论家)Su Xianting (Beijing, Art Critic)

张鸣(北京,教授)Zhang Ming (Beijing, Professor)

余杰(北京,作家)Yu Jie (Beijing, Writer)

余世存(北京,作家)Yu Shicun (Beijing, Writer)

秦耕(海南,作家)Qin Geng (Hainan, Writer)

周舵(北京,学者)Zhou Duo (Beijing, Scholar)

浦志强(北京,律师)Pu Zhiqiang (Beijing, Lawyer)

赵达功(深圳,作家)Zhao Dagong (Beijing, Writer)

姚立法(湖北,选举专家)Yao Lifa ( Hubei, Election expert)

冯正虎(上海,学者)Feng Zhenghu (Shanghai, Scholar)

周�(北京,作家)Zhou Qing (Beijing, Writer)

杨恒均(广州,作家)Yang Hengjun (Guangzhou, Writer)

滕彪(北京,法学博士)Teng Biao ( Beijing, LLD)

蒋�文(上海,作家)Jiang Danwen (Shanghai, Writer)

唯色(西藏,作家)Wei Se(Tibet, Writer)

马波(北京,作家)Ma Bo ( Beijing, Writer)

查建英(北京,作家)Cha Jianying (Beijing, Writer)

胡发云(湖北,作家)Hu Fayun (Hubei, Writer)

焦国标(北京,学者)Jiao Guobiao (Beijing, Scholar)

李公明(广东,教授)Li Gongming (Guangdong, Professor)

赵晖(北京,评论家)Zhao Hui (Beijing, Critic)

李柏光(北京,法学博士)Li Baiguang (Beijing, LLD)

傅国涌(浙江,作家)Fu Guoyong (Zhejiang, Writer)

马少方(广东,商人)Ma Shaofang (Guangdong, Businessman)

张闳(上海,教授)Zhang Hong (Shanghai, Professor)

夏业良(北京,经济学家)Xia Yeliang (Beijing, Economist)

冉云飞(四川,学者)Ran Yunfei (Sichuan, Scholar)

廖亦武(四川,作家)Liao Yiwu (Sichuan, Writer)

王怡(四川,学者)Wang Yi ( Sichuan, Scholar)

王晓渔(上海,学者)Wang Xiaoyu (Shanghai, Scholar)

苏元真(浙江,教授)Su Yuanzhen (Zhejiang, Professor)

强剑衷(南京,老报人)Qiang Jianzhong (Nanjing, Senior Journalist)

欧阳小戎(云南,诗人)Ouyang Xiaorong (Yunnan, Poet)

刘荻(北京,自由职业者)Liu Di (Beijing, Self-empolyed)

昝爱宗(浙江,记者)Zan Aizong (Zhejiang, Journalist)

周鸿陵(北京,社会活动家)Zhou Hongling (Beijing, Social Activist)

冯刚(浙江教授)Feng Gang (Zhejiang, Professor)

陈林(广州学者)Chen Lin (Guangzhou, Scholar)

尹贤(甘肃,诗人)Yin Xian (Gansu, Poet)

周明(浙江,教授)Zhou Ming (Zhejiang, Professor)

凌沧洲(北京,新闻人)Ling Cangzhou (Beijing, Journalist)

铁流(北京,作家)Tie Liu (Beijing, Writer)

陈奉孝(山东,北大右派学生)Chen Fengxiao (Shandong, Rightist )

姚博(北京,评论家)Yao Bo ( Beijing, Critic)

张津郡(广东,职业经理人)Zhang Jinjun (Guangdong, Professional manager)

李剑虹(上海,作家)Li Jianhong (Shanghai, Writer)

张善光(湖南,人权捍卫者)Zhang Shanguang (Hunan, Human rights Defender)

李德铭(湖南,新闻工作者)Li Deming (Hunan, Media Worker)

刘建安(湖南,教师)Liu Jian'an (Hunan, Teacher)

王小山(北京,媒体人)Wang Xiaoshan (Beijing, Media worker)

范亚峰(北京,法学博士)Fan Yafeng (Beijing, Scholar)

周明初(浙江,教授)Zhou Mingchu (Zhejiang, Professor)

梁晓燕(北京,环保志愿者)Liang Xiaoyan (Beijing, Enviromental Volunteer)

徐晓(北京,作家)、Xu Xiao (Beijing, Writer)

陈西(贵州,人权捍卫者)Chen Xi (Guizhou, Human rights Defender)

赵诚(山西,学者)Zhao Cheng (Shanxi, Scholar)

李元龙(贵州,自由撰稿人)Li Yuanlong (Guizhou, Freelance Writer)

申有连(贵州,人权捍卫者)Shen Youlian (Guizhou, Human rights Defender)

蒋绥敏(北京,工程师)Jiang Suimin (Beijing, Engineer)

陆中明(陕西,学者)Lu Zhongming (Shan'xi, Scholar)

孟煌(北京,画家)Meng Huang (Beijing, Painter)

林福武(福建,人权捍卫者)Lin Fuwu (Fujian, Human rights defender)

廖双元(贵州,人权捍卫者)Liao Shuangyuan (Guizhou, Human rights defender)

卢雪松(吉林,教师)Lu Xuesong (Jilin, Teacher)

郭玉闪(北京,学者)Guo Yushan (Beijing, Scholar)

陈焕辉(福建,人权捍卫者)Chen Huanhui (Fujian, Human rights defender)

朱久虎(北京,律师)Zhu Jiuhu (Beijing, Lawyer)

金光鸿(北京,律师)Jin GuangHong (Beijing, Lawyer)

高超群(北京,编辑)Gao Chaoqun (Beijing, Editor)

柏风(吉林,诗人)Bai Feng (Jilin, Poet)

郑旭光(北京,学者)Zheng Xuguang (Beijing, Scholar)

曾金燕(北京维权人士)Zeng Jinyan (Beijing, Human rights defender)

吴玉琴(贵州,人权捍卫者)Wu Yuqin (Guizhou, Human rights defender)

杜义龙(陕西,作家)Du Yilong (Shan'xi, Writer)

李海(北京,人权捍卫者)Li Hai (Beijing, Human rights defender)

张辉(山西,民主人士)Zhang Hui (Shanxi, Democratic Activist)

江山(广东,业主维权者)Jiangshan (Guangdong, Rights Defender)

徐国庆(贵州,民主人士)Xu Guoqing (Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

吴郁(贵州,民主人士)Wu Yu (Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

张明珍(贵州,民主人士)Zhang Mingzhen (Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

曾宁(贵州,民主人士)Zeng Ning (Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

全林志(贵州,民主人士)Quan Linzhi (Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

叶航(浙江,教授)Ye Hang (Zhejiang, Professor)

马云龙(河南,资深媒体人)Ma Yunlong(Henan, Scholar)

朱健国(广东,自由撰稿人)Zhu Jianguo (Guangdong, Writer)

李铁(广东,社会活动人士)Li Tie (Guangdong, Democratic Activist)

莫建刚(贵州,自由撰稿人)Mo Jiangang (Guizhou, Freelance writer)

张耀杰(北京,学者)Zhang Yaojie (Beijing, Scholar)

吴报建(浙江,律师)Wu Baojian (Zhejiang, Lawyer)

杨光(广西,学者)Yang Guang (Guangxi, Scholar)

俞梅荪(北京,法律人)Yu Meisun (Beijing,Legal worker)

行健(北京,法律人)Xing Jian (Beijing, Legal Worker)

王光泽(北京,社会活动家)Wang Guangze (Beijing, Social Activist)

陈绍华(广东,设计师)Chen Shaohua (Guangdong, Designer)

刘逸明(湖北,自由撰稿人)Liu Yiming (Hubei, Freelance Writer)

吴祚来(北京,研究员)Wu Zuolai (Beijing, Researcher)

高�(山东,艺术家)Gao Zhen (Shandong, Artist)

高强(山东,艺术家)Gao Qiang (Shandong, Artist)

唐荆陵(广东,律师)Tang Jingling (Guangdong, Lawyer)

黎小龙(广西,维权人士)Li Xiaolong (Guangxi, Rights Defender)

荆楚(广西,自由撰稿人)Jing Chu (Guangxi, Freelance Writer)

李彪(安徽,商人)Li Biao (Anhui, Businessman)

郭艳(广东,律师)Guo Yan (Guangdong, Lawyer)

杨世元(浙江,退休人员)Yang Shiyuan(Zhejiang, Rightist)

杨宽兴(山东,作家)Yang Kuanxing(Shandong, Writer)

李金芳(河北,民主人士)Li Jinfang(Hebei, Democratic Activist)

王玉文(贵州,诗人)Wang Yuwen(Guizhou, Poet)

杨中义(安徽,工人)Yang Zhongyi(Anhui, Worker)

武辛源(河北农民)Wu Xinyuan (Hebei, Farmer)

杜和平(贵州,民主人士)Du Heping(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

冯玲(湖北,宪政义工)Feng Ling(Hubei, Democratic Activist)

张先忠(湖北,企业家)Zhang Xianzhong(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

蔡敬忠(广东农民) Cai Jingzhong(Guangdong, Farmer)

王典斌(湖北,企业主)Wang Dianbin(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

蔡金才(广东农民) Cai Jincai(Guangdong, Farmer)

高爱国(湖北,企业主)Gao Aiguo(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

陈湛尧(广东农民)Chen Zhanyao(Guangdong,Farmer)

何文凯(湖北,企业主)He Wenkai(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

吴党英(上海,维权人士)Wu Dangying(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

曾庆彬(广东工人)Zeng Qingbin(Guangdong,Worker)

毛海秀(上海,维权人士)Mao Haixiu(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

庄道鹤(杭州,律师)Zhuang Daohe(Hangzhou, Lawyer)

黎雄兵(北京,律师)Li Xiongbing (Beijing, Lawyer)

李任科(贵州,民主人士)Li Renke(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

左力(河北律师)Zuo Li (Hebei, Lawyer)

董德筑(贵州,民主人士)Dong Dez(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

陶玉平(贵州,民主人士)Tao Yuping(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

王俊秀(北京,IT从业者)Wang Junxiu(Beijing, IT Professional)

黄晓敏(四川,维权人士)Huang Xiaomin(Sichuan, Rights Defender)

郑恩宠(上海,法律人)Zheng Enchong(Shanghai,Lawyer)

张君令(上海,维权人士)Zhang Junling(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

杨海(陕西,学者)Yang Hai( Shan'xi, Scholar)

艾福荣(上海,维权人士)Ai Furong(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

杨华仁(湖北,法律工作者)Yang Huaren(Hubei, Legal Worker)

魏勤(上海,维权人士)Wei Qin(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

苏祖祥(湖北,教师)Su Zuxiang(Hubei, Teacher)

沈玉莲(上海,维权人士)Shen Yulian(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

关洪山(湖北,人权捍卫者)Guan Hongshan(Hubei, Human Rights Defender)

宋先科(广东,商人)Song Xianke(Guangdong, Businessman)

汪国强(湖北,人权捍卫者)Wang Guoqiang(Hubei, Human Rights Defender)

陈恩娟(上海,维权人士)Chen Enjuan(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

李勇(北京,媒体人)Li Yong(Beijing, Media worker)

常雄发(上海,维权人士)Chang Xiongfa(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

王京龙(北京,管理学者)Wang Jinglong(Beijing, Scholar)

许正清(上海,维权人士)Xu Zhengqing(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

高军生(陕西,编辑)、Gao Junsheng(Shan'xi, Editor)

郑蓓蓓(上海,维权人士)Zheng Beibei(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

王定华(湖北,律师)Wang Dinghua(Hubei, Lawyer)

谈兰英(上海,维权人士)Tan Lanying(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

范燕琼(福建,人权捍卫者)Fan Yanqiong(Fujian, Human Rights Defender)

林辉(浙江,诗人)Lin Hui(Zhejiang, Poet)

吴华英(福建,人权捍卫者)Wu Huaying(Fujian, Human Rights Defender)

薛振标(浙江,民主人士)Xue Zhenbiao(Zhejiang, Democratic Activist)

董国菁(上海,人权捍卫者)Dong Guoqing(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

陈玉峰(湖北,法律工作者)Chen Yufeng(Hubei, Legal Worker)

段若飞(上海,人权捍卫者)Duan Ruofei(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

王中陵(陕西,教师)Wang Zhongling(Shan'xi, Teacher)

董春华(上海,人权捍卫者)Dong Chunhua(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

陈修琴(上海,人权捍卫者)Chen Xiuqin(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

刘正有(四川,人权捍卫者)Liu Zhengyou(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

马萧(北京,作家)Ma Xiao(Beijing, Writer)

万延海(北京,公共卫生专家)Wan Yanhai(Beijing, Public Health Expert)

沈佩兰(上海,维权人士)Shen Peilan(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

叶孝刚(浙江,大学退休教师)Ye Xiaogang(Zhejiang, retired Lecturer)

张劲松(安徽,工人)Zhang Jingsong(Anhui, Worker)

章锦发(浙江,退休人员)Zhang Jinfa(Zhejiang, Rightist)

王丽卿(上海,维权人士)Wang liqing(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

赵常青(陕西,作家)Zhao Changqing( Shan'xi, Writer)

金月花(上海,维权人士)Jin Yuehua(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

余樟法(广西,作家)Yu Zhangfa(Guangxi, Writer)

陈启勇(上海,维权人士)Chen Qiyong(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

刘贤斌(四川,民主人士)Liu Xianbin(Sichuan, Democratic Activist)

欧阳懿(四川,人权捍卫者)Ouyang Yi (Sichuan, Human Rights Defender)

邓焕武(重庆,商人)Deng Huanwu(Chongqing, Businessman)

贺伟华(湖南,民主人士)He Weihua(Hunan, Democratic Activist)

李东卓(湖南,IT从业者)Li Dongzhuo(Hunan, IT professional)

田永德(内蒙,人权捍卫者)Tian Yongde(Inner Mongolia, Human Rights Defender)

智效民(山西,学者)Zhi Xiaomin(Shanxi, Scholar)

李昌玉(山东,教师)Li Changyu(Shandong, Teacher)

郭卫东(浙江,职员)Guo Weidong(Zhejiang, Clerk)

陈卫(四川,民主人士)Chen Wei(Sichuan, Democratic Activist)

王金安(湖北,企业主)Wang Jin'an(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

察文君(上海,维权人士)Cha Wenjun(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

侯述明(湖北,企业主)Hou Shuming(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

刘汉南(湖北,人权捍卫者)Liu Hannan(Hubei, Human Rights Defender)

史若平(山东,教授)Shi Ruoping(Shandong, Professor)

张忍祥(湖北,人权捍卫者)Zhang renxiang(Hubei, Human Rights Defender)

野渡(广东,编辑)Ye Du(Guangdong, Editor)

夏刚(湖北,人权捍卫者)Xia Gang(Hubei, Human Rights Defender)

赵国良(湖南,民主人士)Zhao Guoliang(Hunan,Democratic Activist)

李智英(北京,学者)Li Zhiying(Beijing, Scholar)

张重发(贵州,民主人士)Zhang Chongfa(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

陈永苗(北京,学者)Chen Yongmiao(Beijing, Scholar)

江婴(天津,诗人)Jiang Ying(Tianjin, Poet)

田祖湘(贵州,民主人士)Tian Zuxiang(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

黄志佳(湖北,公务员)Huang Zhijia(Hubei,Public Servant)

关业波(湖北,公务员)Guan Yebo(Hubei, Public Servant)

王望明(湖北,企业主)Wang Wangming(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

高新瑞(湖北,企业家)Gao Xinrui(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

宋水泉(湖北,法律工作者)Song Shuiquan(Hubei, Legal Worker)

赵景洲(黑龙江,人权捍卫者)Zhao Jingzhou(Heilongjiang, Human Rights Defender)

温克坚(浙江,学者)Wen Kejian(Zhejiang, Scholar)

魏文英(云南,教师)Wei Wenying(Yunan, Teacher)

陈惠娟(黑龙江,人权捍卫者)Chen Huijuan(Heilongjiang, Human Rights Defender)

陈炎雄(湖北,教师)Chen Yanxiong(Hubei, Teacher)

段春芳(上海,人权捍卫者)Duan Chunfang(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

刘正善(云南,工程师)Liu Zhengshan(Yunnan, Engineer)

关敏(湖北,大学教师)Guan Min(Hubei, Lecturer)

戴元龙(福建,企业主)Dai Yuanlong(Fujian, Entrepreneur)

余以为(广东,自由撰稿人)Yu Yiwei(Guangdong, Freelance Writer)

韩祖荣(福建,企业主) Han Zurong(Fujian, Entrepreneur)

汪定亮(湖北,律师)Wang Dingliang( Hubei, Lawyer)

陈青林(北京,人权捍卫者)Chen Qinglin(Beijing, Human Rights Defender)

钱世顺(广东,企业主)Qian Shishun(Guangdong, Entrepreneur)

曾伯炎(四川,作家)Zeng Boyan(Sichuan, Writer)

马亚莲(上海,人权捍卫者)Ma Yalian(Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)

车宏年(山东,自由撰稿人)Che Hongnian(Shandong, Freelance Writer)

秦志刚(山东,电子工程师)Qin Zhigang(Shandong, Engineer)

宋翔峰(湖北,教师)Song Xiangfeng(Hubei, Teacher)

邓复华(湖北,作家)Deng Fuhua(Hubei, Writer)

徐康(湖北,公务员)Xu Kang(Hubei, Public servant)

李建强(山东,律师)Li Jianqiang( Shandong, Lawyer)

李仁兵(北京,律师)Li Renbing(Beijing, Lawyer)

裘美丽(上海,维权人士)Qiu Meili(Shanghai, Rights Defender)

兰志学(北京,律师)Lan Zhixue(Beijing, Lawyer)

周锦昌(浙江,退休人员)Zhou Jinchang(Zhejiang, Rightist)

黄燕明(贵州,民主人士)Huang Yanming(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

刘巍(北京,律师)Liu Wei(Beijing, Lawyer)

鄢烈汉(湖北,企业主)Yan Liehan(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

陈德富(贵州,民主人士)Chen Defu(Guizhou, Democratic Activist)

郭用新(湖北,医生)Guo Yongxin(Hubei, Doctor)

郭永丰(广东,中国公民监政会发起人)Guo Yongfeng(Guangdong,Rights Defender)

袁新亭(广州,编辑)Yuan Xinting(Guangzhou, Editor)

戚惠民(浙江,民主人士)Qi Huimin(Zhejiang, Democratic Activist)

李宇(四川,采编)Li Yu(Sichuan, Editor)

谢福林(湖南,人权捍卫者)Xie Fulin(Hunan, Human Rights Defender)

徐光(浙江,企业主)Xu Guang(Zhejiang, Entrepreneur)

野火(广东,自由撰稿人)Ye Huo(Guangdong, Freelance Writer)

邹巍(浙江,维权人士)Zou Wei(Zhejiang, Rights Defender)

萧利彬(浙江,工程师)Xiao Linbin(Zhejiang, Engineer)

高海兵(浙江,民主人士)Gao Haibing(Zhejiang, Democratic Activist)

田奇庄(河北,作家)Tian Qizhuang (Hebei, Writer)

邓太清(山西,民主人士)Deng Taiqing(Shanxi, Democratic Activist)

裴鸿信(河北,教师)Pei Hongxin(Hebei, Teacher)

徐民(吉林,法律工作者)Xu Min(Jilin, Legal worker)

李喜阁(河南,维权人士)Li Xige(Henan, Rights Defender)

王德邦(北京,作家)Wang Debang(Beijing, Writer)

冯秋盛(广东,农民)Feng QiuSheng(Guangdong, Farmer)

侯文豹(安徽,维权人士)Hou Wenbao( Anhui, Rights Defender)

唐吉田(北京,律师)Tang Jitian(Beijing, Lawyer)

刘荣超(安徽,农民)Liu Rongchao( Anhui, Farmer)

李天翔(河南,工人)Li Tianxiang(Henan,worker)

崔玉振(河北,律师)Cui Yuzhen(Hebei, Lawyer)

许茂连(安徽,农民)Xu Maolian(Anhui, Farmer)

翟林华(安徽,教师)Zhai Linhua(Anhui, Teacher)

陶晓霞(安徽,农民)Tao Xiaoxia(Anhui, Farmer)

张望(福建,工人)Zhang Wang(Fujian, Worker)

黄大川(辽宁,职员)Huang Dachuan(Liaoning, Clerk)

陈啸原(海南,职员)Chen Xiaoyuan (Hainan, Clerk)

张鉴康(陕西,法律工作者)Zhang Jiankang ( Sha'nxi,Legal Worker)

张星水(北京,律师)Zhang Xingshui(Beijing, Lawyer)

马纲权(北京,律师)Ma Gangquan(Beijing, Lawyer)

王金祥(湖北,维权人士)Wang Jinxiang(Hubei, Rights Defender)

王家英(湖北,企业主)Wang Jiaying(Hubei, Entrepreneur)

鄢来云(湖北,企业主)Yan Laiyun (Hubei, Entrepreneur)

李小明(湖北,维权人士)Li Xiaoming(Hubei, Rights Defender)

肖水祥(湖北,维权人士)Xiao Shuixiang(Hubei, Rights Defender)

鄢裕祥(湖北,维权人士)Yan Yuxiang (Hubei, Rights Defender)

刘毅(北京,画家)Liu Yi(Beijing, Painter)

张正祥(云南,环保人士)Zhang Zhengxiang(Yunnan, Environmentalist)